Symbiosis and Autonomy

Symbiotic Trauma and Love Beyond Entanglements

Preface to the English Edition and Acknowledgements
Editor’s Foreword

1. Forever Yours – or Forever Alone?
1.1  Symbiosis-Autonomy Conflicts
1.2  Working Hypotheses

2. What is “Symbiosis”?
2.1  Mutual Benefit
2.2  Hunter and Prey
2.3  Competition and Division of Labour
2.4  Primal Feelings
2.5  Mirror Neurons and Symbiosis

3. Symbiosis as a Psychological Concept
3.1  Erich Fromm
3.2  Margaret Mahler
3.3  Martin Dornes
3.4  Further Considerations

4. What is Autonomy?
4.1  The Collective or Uniqueness?
4.2  Development of Individuality and Subjectivity
4.3  Freedom from Dependence
4.4  External and Internal Freedom
4.5  The Development of the Self
4.6  Pseudo-Autonomy
4.7  True Autonomy

5. Constructive and Destructive Forms of Symbiosis
5.1  Constructive Forms of Symbiosis
5.2  Destructive Forms of Symbiosis
5.3  Constructiveness and Destructiveness in the Parent-Child Relationship
5.4  The Spiral of Growth

6. Trauma as the Main Cause of Psychological Disorders
6.1  Attachment Theory and Trauma Theory
6.2  A Model for Psychological Splitting
6.3  Trauma and Symbiosis

7. Symbiosis between Parents and Children
7.1  Mother-Child Symbiosis
7.2  Child-Mother Symbiosis
7.3  Traumatised Mothers and Traumatised Children
7.4  Traumatised Fathers and Traumatised Children

8. Symbiotic Trauma

9. Symbiotic Entanglements
9.1  Symbiotic Entanglements in Siblings
9.2  Symbiotic Entanglements in Couples
9.3  Symbiotic Entanglements in the Family as a Whole
9.4  Symbiotic Entanglements at a National Level
9.5  Symbiotic Entanglements with (Sports) Clubs
9.6  The Economy, Money and Symbiotic Entanglements
9.7  Symbiotic Entanglements of Perpetrators and Victims
9.8  Addiction and Symbiotic Entanglements
9.9  Psychosis, Schizophrenia and Symbiotic Entanglements
9.10  Physical ‘Illnesses’ and Symbiotic Entanglements<

10. Bonding-Oriented Trauma Constellations
10.1  Listening Without Judging
10.2  Acquiring Confidence
10.3  From Family Constellations to Trauma Constellations
10.4  Working with the ‘Intention’
10.5  The Role of the Therapist
10.6  Work with Constellations in One-to-One Sessions
10.7  Background Theories and Working Hypotheses

11. Resolving Symbiotic Entanglements
11.1  Therapeutic Guidance
11.2  Therapeutic Considerations
11.3  Constellations and the Symbiotic Trauma
11.4  Understanding Symbiotic Entanglement
11.5  Understanding and Recognising Trauma
11.6  Therapy Work with Trauma
11.7  Relinquishing Illusions of a Rapid Healing
11.8  Renouncing Symbiotically Transferred Feelings
11.9  Focusing on the Healthy Part
11.10  Developing a Healthy Body Awareness
11.11  Developing a Healthy Will
11.12  Being at One with Yourself
11.13  Wanting Neither to Save, nor be Saved
11.14  Leaving Partners who Entangle
11.15  Distancing Oneself from Traumatising Parents
11.16  Being neither Victim nor Perpetrator
11.17  Bringing One’s Own Childhood to a Close
11.18  Entering into New Positive Relationships
11.19  Finding Healthy Boundaries
11.20  Finding Sexual Self-Determination
11.21  Incorruptible Transparency
11.22  Loving Beyond the Constraints of Trauma and Symbiotic Entanglement

12. Hope